La blockchain applied to the agri-food chain is today the main way to pursue sustainability on the three environmental, social and economic fronts.
To these conclusions comes a scientific study published on 5.2.21 on Sustainability by the researchers of the North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University. (1)
In this perspective, the project was developed in Italy Wiise Chain, with the aim of guaranteeing the fair remuneration of truly sustainable productions.
Blockchain public, the incorruptible register
La blockchain public is a distributed public register, based on blocks of encrypted data that must be integrated - within an organization, or a supply chain - by the various operators participating in it. The resulting information is technically incorruptible and cannot be changed even by those who have contributed to entering the relevant data. (2)
In the agri-food sector la blockchain first of all, it can guarantee the consistency of the data relating to traceability and traceability. (3) Wal-Mart has been introducing a similarblockchain for internal use, precisely to mitigate fraud on the most distant supply chains. But on closer inspection one blockchain public, when easy to apply to software already in use by the various companies and accessible at popular costs, it can have strategic importance for the economy and sustainable development.
Blockchain public and sustainability
Sustainability it means intervening on the three pillars of environment, economy and society. Italian consumers they demonstrated, in the last year, a growing attention to these issues. It is therefore a question of deciding if and how to orient oneself towards these objectives, with a self-referential approach that often drowns in greenwashing) or through real data.
An blockchain public can favor this second path, thanks to the possibility of registering and sharing - through QR-queues, sites website ed ecommerce, social networks - a series of data and values that consumers can appreciate. The system can therefore be integrated with a modular approach, on a voluntary basis, to encourage informed and responsible consumption choices. (4) Some examples to follow.
Environment and circular economy
Environment. Reduction of the environmental footprint of production, that is to say of the consumption of energy, water, input in agriculture, as well as greenhouse gas emissions. Animal welfare, reduction / elimination of the use of antibiotics and veterinary drugs (eg. Algatan). Elimination of raw materials associated with deforestation (eg GMO soy, palm oil). Organic productions and their favorable impact on the quality of the soils, as well as on the ecosystem.
Value chain and social sustainability
The quality of each agri-food product is intimately correlated with the fair remuneration of the farmers and breeders who supply the raw materials. Dairy products and cheeses, eggs, meats and cured meats are born in the stable, fruit and vegetables in the fields. But if milk, eggs and carcasses, like agricultural commodities, are paid at the limits of below cost (and even beyond), every word on food quality, environmental protection and biodiversity, social sustainability is meaningless. Also on PDO and PGI products, as seen.
Il Made in Italy and short supply chain they are good only if they are fair and Italian consumers finally begin to understand this concept. It is therefore the key to ensuring that fairly paid agricultural businesses invest in quality and sustainability, as well as hiring workers in good standing rather than being forced to work illegally as the only alternative to abandoning the fields. And the blockchain can guarantee this news so that the consumer can choose wisely, while still in Brussels they struggle the exceptions rather than the rules on the transparency of the value chain.
Wiise Chain, blockchain public sector for the agri-food chain, the circular economy and the third sector
Wiise Chain - startup participated by ours Wiise (Workable Ideas and Initiatives for a Sustainable Economy) Srl, a benefit company - is a company benefits created to promote the development of sustainable supply chains, with focus of:
- agri-food chain, (5)
- circular economy models (eg. hemp supply chain)
- medical devices (UDI codes). (6)
Wiise Chain, the advantages
The system of blockchain public introduced by Wiise Chain differs from others in several respects:
- reliability. Wiise Chain adopts the BitCoin protocol, perhaps the only IT system to have resisted any cyber attack in 13 years of operation. Beyond Open Time Stamps, equally reliable and free of upgrade costs. Two open-source software which guarantee maximum transparency in the incorruptibility of the recorded data,
- simplicity. The Wiise Chain software it simply 'teaches' the computer systems already used by each operator to express themselves in language blockchain. That is to say, to generate encrypted codes to which the different categories of users (company, partner, buyer and supervisory authorities) can access according to the levels of permission defined, (7)
- economy. The system is interoperable with all software ERP existing on the market and its installation requires a few hours of work, even to define a simple graphical interface aimed at readers. No duplication of nor operations other than those already in use, in daily work. Laughable subscription costs, special rates for organic supply chains, concessions. No marginal costs. (8)
(1) Park et al. (2021) The effect of Blockchain technology on supply chain sustainability performances. Sustainability 13: 1726, https://doi.org/10.3390/su13041726
(2) Dario Dongo and Melissa Bozzolini. Blockchain, true or false? Fraud on the corner. GIFTS (Great Italian Food Trade). 30.6.19/XNUMX/XNUMX, https://www.greatitalianfoodtrade.it/consum-attori/blockchain-vero-o-falso-la-frode-all-angolo
(3) Dario Dongo. Traceability and blockchain in the food supply chain, the ABC. GIFTS (Great Italian Food Trade). 26.12.18/XNUMX/XNUMX, https://www.greatitalianfoodtrade.it/strategia/tracciabilit%C3%A0-e-blockchain-nella-filiera-alimentare-abc
(4) Dario Dongo and Andrea Adelmo Della Penna. Blockchain, the opportunities for the agri-food and organic supply chains. GIFTS (Great Italian Food Trade). 1.11.20/XNUMX/XNUMX, https://www.greatitalianfoodtrade.it/innovazione/blockchain-le-opportunità-per-la-filiera-agroalimentare-e-quella-biologica
(5) Dario Dongo, Gian Luca Mascellino. Public blockchain, Noberasco at the start with Wiise Chain. 11.11.20, https://www.greatitalianfoodtrade.it/innovazione/blockchain-pubblica-noberasco-al-via-con-wiise-chain
(6) Dario Dongo. Medical devices, the traceability of UDI codes in Eudamed has begun. DO (Food and Agriculture Requirements). 6.11.19/XNUMX/XNUMX, https://www.foodagriculturerequirements.com/dispositivi-medici-al-via-la-tracciabilita-dei-codici-udi-in-eudamed
(7) Dario Dongo, Gian Luca Mascellino. Wiise Chain, the real Made in Italy blockchain at competitive costs. GIFTS (Great Italian Food Trade). 1.9.19/XNUMX/XNUMX, https://www.greatitalianfoodtrade.it/mercati/wiise-chain-la-vera-blockchain-made-in-italy-a-costi-competitivi
(8) The budget law 2021 (v. https://www.gazzettaufficiale.it/eli/id/2020/12/30/20G00202/sg) provides for a series of financial concessions for the purchase of capital and intangible assets 4.0. In summary, the tax credit introduced in the 4.0 Transition Plan is reconfirmed with the following changes:
- increase in rates and the maximum expenditure ceiling for each type of investment,
- extension of the tax credit to generic intangible assets, hitherto excluded,
- reduction of the time of use of the contribution from 5 to 3 years with the start of the use of the facility starting from the year of use of the asset and interconnection of the investment,
- applicability to investments made starting from November 16, 2020. Eligible expenses relate to new capital goods 4.0 (https://www.mise.gov.it/images/stories/documenti/Allegato_A_2016.pdf), new 4.0 and non-new intangible assets, software and digital services (https://www.mise.gov.it/images/stories/documenti/Allegato_B_2016.pdf)